Estimating total world energy use is slightly tricky, and different means of doing it may disagree by a few percent. Nevertheless, total world primary energy consumption in 2003 was roughly 400 quadrillion Btu's, and other numbers as in the following table (see references below for more details).
|in Btu's||metric power||oil equivalent|
|Total:||400 quads/year||13 TW||188 million bboe/day|
|per person:||70 million Btu/yr||2.2 kW||1 bboe/month|
|US:||90 quads/year||3 TW||42 million bboe/day|
|US per person:||340 million Btu/yr||10 kW||5 bboe/month|
|World Electric:||170 quads/yr||5.7 TW (1.9 TWe)||80 million bboe/day|
|US Electric:||38 quads/yr||1.3 TW (0.46 TWe)||18 million bboe/day|
|World: oil||144 quads/yr||4 TW||70 million bboe/day|
|World: natural gas||93 quads/yr||3 TW||44 million bboe/day|
|World: coal||102 quads/yr||3.4 TW||48 million bboe/day|
|World: nuclear||24 quads/yr||0.8 TW||11 million bboe/day|
|World: hydro||24 quads/yr||0.8 TW||11 million bboe/day|
|US Residential:||21 quads/yr||0.7 TW||10 million bboe/day|
|US Commercial and Industrial:||50 quads/yr||1.6 TW||23 million bboe/day|
|US Transportation:||27 quads/yr||0.9 TW||13 million bboe/day|
Note that electric power consumption, averaged through a year, is quite a bit less than installed capacity; some electric generators are used almost full time (nuclear reactors in particular), some only when demand is high, and some generators have variable supply (wind turbines and hydroelectric dams in particular).
The rise in use of fossil fuels through the 19th century replaced current bio-mass with the ancient variety preserved in oil, coal, and natural gas deposits. Thanks largely to benefits from fossil fuels, world population nearly quadrupled from 1.6 billion in 1900 to 6.1 billion in 2000. Human energy use grew even faster, from about 21 quads in 1900 to over 350 quads by 2000. That factor of roughly 16 growth in energy use was matched by a factor of 16 growth in constant-dollar world GDP; more on that when we discuss economic issues.
The following chart shows growth in primary energy consumption since 1965 using data from British Petroleum's "Statistical Review of World Energy 2004" and the US Department of Energy's International Energy Review 2002 (released 2004). The EIA report includes more renewable sources than the BP one, though that doesn't entirely explain the differences in their estimates. At least they're close and the trends are the same.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2004: http://www.bp.com/subsection.do?categoryId=95&contentId=2006480 The entire data set from the review is available for download as a spreadsheet.
US DOE Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2003: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/consump.html, see table 2.1a for consumption by sector.
US DOE Energy Information Administration, International Energy Review 2002: http://www.eia.doe.gov/iea/contents.html, see table 2.9 for primary energy production and B.1 for world population.